In 2003, China¡¯s gross domestic product (GDP) of the year topped the 10 trillion yuan level to reach 11,689.8 billion yuan, up by 7% over the previous year at comparable prices. The value-added of the primary industry was 1,488.3 billion yuan. The value-added of the secondary industry was 5,298.2 billion yuan. The value-added of the tertiary industry was 3,867.5 billion yuan.
I. Energy Industry
China is the largest coal producer and the second largest electricity producer in the world. So far, it has preliminarily formed an energy production system which takes coal as the mainstay and in which various forms of energy supplement one another. In 2003, China¡¯s energy production totaled 16.03 billion tons standard coal, up by 11% over the previous year.
1. Power Industry
In 2003, the power consumed by the whole society amounted to 1900 billion kilowatt-hours, rising 15.5% over last year; with the installed capacity for power generating reaching 380 million kilowatts. At present, both China¡¯s installed capacity for power generating and the generated energy rank second in the world.
Construction of the electrified wire netting has entered into the fastest stage of development in history, with all major electrified wire nettings covering all cities and most rural areas in the country. The 500-kilovolt main wire netting frame is beginning to take the place of the 220-kilovolt wire netting, undertaking the power transport and exchange between provinces and regions. The international state-of-the-art computer-dominating dispatching automation system has universally adopted and arrived at the level of practicality. China has stepped into a new era with its power industry being dominated by the major generating units, large-scale power plants, major electrified wire nettings, super high-tension and automation.
2. Coal Industry
The technological level of China¡¯s coal industry is now imbued with the capacity to design, construct, install and control 10000000-ton opencut coal mines and large and medium-sized mining areas. In 2003, the total output of China¡¯s raw coal amounted to 1.667 billion tons, rising 15.0%.
3. Oil Industry
Oil and natural gas are important energies of China. China¡¯s output of crude oil reached 170 million tons in 2003, rising 1.8% and ranking fifth in the world. The development of oil industry has mobilized the development of the local economies and of the relevant industries, such as machine building, iron and steel, and communications and transportation. As China¡¯s economy is developing fast, its own crude oil is unable to completely satisfy the needs. Thus, since the mid-1990s China has begun to import crude oil from abroad.
China¡¯s output of natural gas reached 34.1-plus billion cubic meters in 2003. Growth of the output of oil and natural gas has evidently increased their proportions in energy consumption structure. China has increased the proportions of its consumption of oil and natural gas in China¡¯s total disposable energy consumption from 17.5% and 1.8% in 1995 to 22.7% and 2.8% in 2003.
II. Communications and Transportation Industry
China owns fairly complete and perfect transportation system, including airport and seaport facilities equipped with advanced technologies, highways radiating in all directions, convenient railway networks, as well as many important inland waterways, basically forming a fast-way framework for passenger transport and freight transport centered on Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. In 2003, circulation of passengers throughout the country totally amounted to 1381.1 billion person-kilometers and the cargo circulation amounted to 5385.9 billion ton-kilometers in all.
China has always been taking construction of highways as one of the important contents in terms of accelerating construction of the infrastructure. In the first nine months of 2003, an accumulative total investment of 280.68 billion yuan was put into construction of China¡¯s infrastructure, rising 21.4% as compared with the same period of last year. As of the end of 2003, mileage open to traffic throughout China had amounted to 1.8098 million kilometers, of which mileage of the expressways representing the modern transportation development level amounted to 29.7 thousand kilometers, leaping to the second place in the world. Meanwhile, the country has quickened the construction of highways in central and western regions, thus greatly improving the highway conditions in these regions. At present, the density of the nation-wide highway network has amounted to 17.7 kilometers / hundred square kilometers.
75% of the arterial national highways composed of 12 high-level highways with a total length of 35 thousand kilometers crossing the east and west parts and the north and south borders has been completed, with about 20% being under construction. By 2008, a network of arterial national highways in China will be completely constructed. By then, Beijing, Shanghai and all other province-level municipalities, provincial capitals and capitals of the autonomous regions will be connected by the high-level highways dominated by expressways, making the total number of cities to be connected to reach more than 200.
By the end of 2003, the total operating mileage of the nation-wide railways amounted to 73 thousand kilometers, of which mileage of the double-tracking railways amounted to 22.6 thousand kilometers and that of the electric railways to 17 thousand kilometers.
Railway transportation has always been the main force in China¡¯s transportation industry. In 2003, the railway passenger circulation registered 478.9 billion person-kilometers and the freight circulation registered 1724.7 billion ton-kilometers. At present, China¡¯s railway transportation accounts for 6% of the world total railway operating mileage, but with the completion of 25% of the world railway workload, becoming one of the biggest countries completing the amount of the world railway transportation. China is also a country with its transportation amount growing the fastest and its use of transportation equipment the most efficient.
The Qinghai-Tibet railway, at the highest sea level in the world and with a total length of 1142 kilometers, will be completed by 2006. Canton-Hainan railway, the first railway spanning the strait in China, was open to traffic on January 7, 2003. The Canton-Hainan railway starts at the city of Zhanjiang in Guangdong Province, through Leizhou Peninsula and across Qiongzhou Strait, and reaches the existing railways in Chahe in the west of Hainan Province and ends at Sanya. The total length is 345 kilometers.
China¡¯s waterway transportation includes deep-sea transport and inland water transport, centralizing at east coastal areas and in the south areas. In 2003, the freight circulation of the waterway transportation amounted to 2871.6 billion ton-kilometers, topping railway transport and highway transport.
The mileage of China¡¯s inland water lanes is 124000 kilometers, of which over 7800 kilometers are for the navigation of thousand-tonnage vessels, with the main inland water lanes including the Yangtze River, the Pearl River and the Heilong River. There are over 8000 berths at the inland water ports and docks, of which over 40 berths are for 10-thousand-tonnage vessels. Important river ports include Chongqing, Wuhan, Nanjing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Harbin.
Along the coastal areas in China, there are over 60 seaports, with the possession of over 3800 berths for production use and 700 berths for 10-thousadn-tonnage vessels. The volume of freight handled reached 1.965 billion tons in 2003. In 2003, the main ports with a volume of freight handled exceeding 100 million tons include Shanghai, Ningbo, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Tianjin, Qingdao, Dalian, Qinhuangdao and Shenzhen. In 2003, volume of freight handled of the main coastal ports amounted to 2011260000 tons, rising 344980000 tons over last year.
Construction of China¡¯s coastal ports is focused on the transportation system like coal, container, imported iron ore, foodstuff, land and island ro-ro and deep water outbound courses, with the construction of container transport system being specially strengthened. Efforts have been intensified by the government in the construction of a number of deep water container docks at Dalian, Tianjin, Qingdao, Shanghai, Ningbo, Xiamen and Shenzhen, laying the foundation for the formation of China¡¯s hub container ports. Construction of coal transportation system has been further strengthened and a number of docks have been set up for the loading and discharging of coal. Meanwhile, a number of docks have been transformed and extended for the import of crude oil and iron ore. In 2003, the whole country fulfilled a volume of containers handled reaching 47350000 TCU, rising 35.4% over last year. Of which the coastal ports fulfilled 44520000 TCU, rising 36.7%. In 2003, 8 ports with their volume of container handled exceeding 1 million TCU are Shanghai, Shenzhen, Qingdao, Tianjin, Ningbo, Guangzhou, Xiamen and Dalian.
4. Civil Aviation
By the end of 2003, number of air routes for regular airliners of CAAC reached 1155. Of which the domestic lines reached 961, with a passage to 130 cities; the international lines reached 194, connected to 62 cities of 33 countries. The mileage of the air lines reached 1.7495 million kilometers. Domestic airports open to traffic reached 126. Number of civil aeroplanes reached 1190, with the completion of airway cargo transportation reaching 5.79 billion ton-kilometers throughout the year and the completion of passenger transportation reaching 126.3 billion person-kilometers and the volume of cargo transportation reaching 2.19 million tons.
III. Telecommunication Service
As of the end of 2003, China¡¯s international entry and exit band width was estimated to reach 20G and the total number of web-sites to top 500 thousand. Number of areas registered at China CN was close to 400 thousand, computers connected with Internet arrived at 30 million and the Internet subscribers reached 78 million, ranking the second place in the world. Internet service based on fee explorer was on the increase and the Internet industrial ecological chain has taken shape. The new round construction and use of wide-band network was on the rise.
At the same time, China has also participated in the construction of several international land optical cables and submarine optical cables, such as construction of Sino-Japanese, Sino-Korean and Asia-Europe sea cables and Asia-Europe and Sino-Russia land optical cables. The Asia-Europe land optical cable stretching 27000 kilometers was sponsored and constructed by China, starting at Shanghai, China in the east and arriving in Frankfort, Germany in the west by way of over 20 countries, which is currently the longest land optical cable system in the world. At present, countries and regions opening telecommunication business with China have reached over 200.
At the end of 2003, the total capacity of the exchange machines used by local telephone offices arrived at 354 million, with the scale of the telecommunication network ranking second in the world. In 2003, the total amount of telecommunication business throughout the country reached 673.93 billion yuan.
In 2003, China¡¯s electronic information industry fulfilled a sales income of 1800 billion RMB yuan, with the export amount exceeding 120 billion and the industrial scale ranking third in the world. China has currently established a relatively excellent industrial structure for the electronic information industry, making a contribution to China¡¯s GDP accounting for 8-10% and with the export accounting for 30% of the total exports. Information industry has become the first pillar industry in the Chinese industries.
IV. Postal Communication Service
As of the end of 2003, post offices and sub-offices throughout China had reached over 63 thousand places. There were over 20 thousand post offices and sub-offices providing various functional services, making up 28% or more of all the post offices and sub-offices. Countries and regions receiving China¡¯s postal services reached 185.